Basically by creating the right conditions within the toilets composting chamber to keep your waste as an active, healthy compost pile rather than a smelly pile of poo! Composting toilets offer a hygienic way to recycle human waste in a manner that avoids polluting and wasting precious water. All composting toilets are designed to ensure the correct levels of moisture, temperature, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen required to achieve good composting are present in the chambers. Moisture is managed through drainage and evaporation systems which remove excess liquid from the solids. Oxygen is regulated using low-wattage ventilation systems which aerate the compost and also serve to evacuate any odours from the toilet room. The ideal temperature is achieved depending on site specifics and the system used. The carbon/nitrogen balance is managed by regularly adding carbon-dense mulch to the pile. At the end of the composting process, microbes have broken down the waste into humus, a soil-like substance with an earthy odour.